Multiple myeloma is a type of bone malignancy that affects the specialised white blood cells called plasma cells, which are crucial in producing antibodies. Bone marrow is the primary organ affected while other organs, such as the kidneys, may also be severely affected by the condition. The advanced stage of multiple myeloma may result in kidney failure. This article will discuss the causes of kidney failure in multiple myeloma and the potential therapies used in managing this malignancy, such as lenalidomide.

Causes of Kidney Failure in Multiple Myeloma

Kidney failure can result from multiple myeloma for several reasons:

  1. Production of aberrant proteins: Monoclonal immunoglobulins, or M proteins, are produced abnormally by malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma. Kidney dysfunction may result from these proteins building up and causing harm to the kidneys over time. 
  2. Amyloid or non-amyloid fibrils may occur in the kidneys due to the light chains of aberrant immunoglobulins depositing there under certain circumstances. Renal failure may ultimately follow from this deposit and deterioration in renal function.
  3. Dehydration and hypercalcemia: Hypercalcemia can be brought on by multiple myeloma, when the blood contains significant amounts of calcium. This may cause harm to the kidneys.  

Furthermore, dehydration, which can happen as a result of the illness or its management, can exacerbate renal dysfunction.

Treatment Options of Kidney Failure in Multiple Myeloma

In patients facing kidney failure due to multiple myeloma, immediate intervention is necessary to preserve renal function and improve overall outcomes. The traditional therapy approach consists of a range of techniques that are particularly tailored to the condition of each patient. The major treatment goals are to reduce the creation of abnormal proteins, regulate issues, and provide supportive care. 

Chemotherapy, the cornerstone of multiple myeloma treatment, is crucial for managing renal failure. Targeted treatments are widely employed to limit the growth of cancer cells and alleviate the kidney's load. Protease inhibitors and immunomodulatory medications are two examples. These medications help to lessen kidney damage by decreasing the generation of abnormal proteins.

Immunomodulatory medications, including lenalidomide, which is categorised as a thalidomide analog, have demonstrated promising outcomes in the management of multiple myeloma. The Lenalid 25 medicine works by controlling the immune system and stopping the growth of cancerous cells. It contains lenalidomide. 

The FDA has authorised lenalidomide for the treatment of multiple myeloma in instances that have been recently diagnosed, as well as in those that have relapsed or become resistant to previous chemotherapeutic medications. Its efficacy has been proven by the notable increases in overall response rates, disease progression slowing, and life extension.


Renal failure can lead to poor prognosis in multiple myeloma patients. Efficient treatment options and timely diagnosis are critical for managing this issue. Immunomodulatory medications have emerged as a promising therapeutic option that maintains kidney function and provides superior outcomes when used in conjunction with other chemotherapy therapies. Nonetheless, tailored treatment plans and ongoing oversight by medical specialists are still required for the greatest outcomes. Supportive actions, including maintaining appropriate hydration and resolving electrolyte imbalances, are also necessary to maintain renal function. Extreme renal failure may necessitate dialysis or kidney transplantation to improve quality of life.